Java is a programming language object-oriented, developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 90s. The language in itself takes much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and eliminates low-level tools, that induce to many errors as direct manipulation of pointers or memory. Memory is managed by a garbage collector.
Java applications are typically compiled into a bytecode, although compilation to native machine code is also possible. At runtime, the bytecode is usually either interpreted or compiled to native code for execution, although direct hardware execution of bytecode by a Java processor is also possible.
The original and reference implementation of the compiler, the virtual machine and the Java class libraries were developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995. Since then, Sun has controlled the specification, development and evolution of language through the Java Community Process, although others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, some even under free software licenses.
Between December 2006 and May 2007, Sun Microsystems released most of its Java technologies under the GNU GPL license, according to Java Comunnity Process specifications, so that all of Sun Java is now open source software (although the library from Sun that is required to run Java programs don’t)
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